60 MHz Benchtop NMR spectrometer
This instrument can measure the relaxation of atomic nuclei in a strong external magnetic field which is generated by a rare metal permanent magnet. It is a very critical instrument in identifying structures of unknown compounds.
Applications: Structure elucidation in early phase drug development, identification of API, product QC in manufacturing processes.
This instrument can measure the vibration of organic molecules under the Infra-red radiation. It is particularly strong in detecting functional groups.
Applications: Structure confirmation, raw material QC.
What is FT? Fourier Transform (FT) is a set of algorithms that can extract every single frequency from a complex frequency envelope. It is like expressing a chord by its constituent notes. Modern IR spectrometers are equipped with a device called interferometer to facilitate the use of FT. This can largely accelerate the data acquisition speed.
Gas Chromatography (GC)
GC is very like HPLC, except the separation is in gas phase. GC has many applications similar to HPLC, and it is particularly suitable for analysing volatile compounds.
Applications: Aquantification of volatile API, detection of pesticides.
This instrument can measure both the absorption spectrum and the absorbance of a compound. It is one of the most common instrument used in quantitative analysis.
Applications: Quantification of API in pharmaceutical products.
Disintegration tester is used to measure the time required for break-up a solid formulation (mostly tablets). In pharmaceutical research, disintegration time is one of the useful indicators to predict drug dissolution.
Applications: Measurement of disintegration time of tablets
Spray drying is commonly used in pharmaceutical industry. Liquid is aerosolized into fine droplets, which are rapidly dried by a stream of hot gas into dry particles. Aerosolization greatly increases surface area available for solvent evaporation, allowing both size reduction and drying to be performed in one continuous operation. Different process parameters can be varied to produce dry particles that suit different purposes.
Applications: Production of powders for inhalation, microencapsulation
Twin Stage Impinger (TSI)
Next Generation Impactor (NGI)
Andersen Cascade Impactor (ACI)
Multistage Liquid Impinger (MSLI)
Cascade impactor / impinger
Cascade impactors or impingers are apparatus for the measurement of aerodynamic particle size distribution of inhaled formulations. Aerosols with different momentum are deposited in different stages of the impactor/impingers, reflecting their deposition at different sites in the airways. Various designs of impactors / impingers are available including Twin Stage Impinger (TSI), Multistage Liquid Impinger (MSLI), Andersen Cascade Impactor (ACI) and Next Generation Impactor (NGI).
Applications: Quality control of inhaler products, aerodynamic particle size distribution measurement
High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)
HPLC is intended to separating components from complex mixtures. The detector is switchable, and can perform both qualitative and quantitative analysis.
Applications: API quantification in medicinal products, identification of herbal medicine, reaction monitoring, pharmacokinetics.
Dissolution apparatus is used to determine drug release profile (i.e., amount of drug released from a dosage form against time) under a set of pre-determined testing condition. The elements in the testing condition include pH of dissolution medium, volume of dissolution medium, type of apparatus (basket or paddle), rotating speed of apparatus and testing time.
Applications: Collection of dissolution profile for pharmaceutical products and new drugs
The turbula mixer is a three-dimensional shaker/mixer used for homogenous mixing of powder substances with different specific weights and particle sizes. The substances are exposed to constant changing, rhythmically pulsing motion according to the Schatz geometric theory.
Applications: Powder blending and mixing
Friability test apparatus
Friability test apparatus is used to evaluate physical strength of tablets upon exposure to mechanical shock and attrition. In friability test, tablets are initially weighted and placed in the drum. After 100 revolutions, the tablets are dedusted weighed again. The loss due to abrasion is a measure of the tablet friability.
Applications: Provision of information on tablet quality and rigidity during coating, packaging, shipping and dispensing.
Commonly used in pharmaceutical industry, freeze-drying (also known as lyophilisation) removes solvent of solution at low temperature. Solutions are first frozen and then subjected to a low pressure and low temperature environment. Gradually, the ice in the frozen particles sublime to vapour and is subsequently removed.
Applications: Drying of heat sensitive substances and biopharmaceuticals such as vaccines, antibodies, enzymes and other proteins
Single station tablet press
The single station tablet press is a mechanical equipment which compresses the powder into tablets of uniform size with different shape and uniform weight. This machine can be used to manufacture tablets of a variety of materials, for examples, pharmaceutical products, foods, and cosmetics.
Applications: Powder compression as tablets
Bulk density apparatus
The bulk density apparatus is used to measure the bulk density property of powder sample before and after tapping. Bulk density is defined as the mass of the sample divided by the total volume they occupy. The total volume includes particle volume, inter-particle void volume and internal pore volume.
Applications: Density measurement of powder or granules, assessment of powder flow properties